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Love the site, Bjorn. Thanks for all your hard work researching and reviewing everything Gilmour. Ive been chasing after that Comfortably Numb tone forever, and this article really opened up my eyes. Im having just a few problems though.

A few days ago I sold my RP because the tones were just pure shit. Plugged in my trusty Les Paul with the Phat Cats, and was very disappointed. Coupled with that famous EHX volume drop it was just a recipe for disaster. Plus, most of the ones on there look so beat up I cant bring myself to buy them. Im looking for a good all around pedal suitable for all eras, and not too expensive. Other pedals in the DD series worth looking into? Or should I get out of that Boss mentality and look somewhere else?

Like Ive said many times before, your site is a Godsend for me. You and our mutual friend David Gilmour inspired me to start playing the guitar again after a long 4 year hiatus.

Thank you so much for everything you do for us Gilmour freaks around the world. Glad you enjoy my site: The Mistress is quite dominating. You might experience that the Large Beaver sound quite harsh and brittle on the amp.

The BD2, set after the LB with a warm clean boost, might help smoothen things out. Check out this feature for more tips on overdrive and distortions on different setups. In regards to the delay. Check out the TC Flashback. That little pedal has lots of different modes and great tones. Bro i need the original or the best possible tabs for both the solos. Where can i find them. I am pretty sure that you are the right person for this question. Please guide me in tn the best possible way.

I think the tabs in the Wall and Echoes — Best Of books are pretty accurate. Both sounds pretty good. First of all, congratulations for your excellent job!

My question is, if you know my amp, which amp modulation should i choose, maybe AC30, Fender 57 Twin…? I usually recommend that you bypass the sims and just use the clean amp as a basis for the pedals. Do some tweaking until you get a desired tone and add the pedals on top of that. I can nail the second solo pretty good with my GT6 but having a bit of a time getting the tone on the first solo.

Any tips from you or fellow gilmouish fans? Anyone has any experience with the GT6??? Have you heard of this guitar? Next time you talk to Phil, give him a little fun jab about not paying. Lindy said he was sure it was a simple mistake, and that he was sure Gilmour was a very tasteful gentleman, and would pay the bill. As usual Bjorn, Thank you for this forum, and all the advise, and wisdom you have shared with me.

You are absolutely right. That, coupled with the fact that it has an enormous footprint, is leading me to look at The Musket for my board. LOVE everything about that box. Seems like it might be a better choice than The Rat, and offer more versatility. And while my Boss OS2 is a great, versatile pedal, it does have this tendency to pick up radio stations.

Also agree about the Tube Screamer. Is there a 12 step program for people like us? Seems like 5 full time jobs…. I deleted your other post and will anser all your Qs here. Be sure to use properly shielded instrument and patch cables and switch off any nearby electronic devices such as computers, tv, phones etc.

The Musket is indeed a great pedal. Very versatile and works equally well on bedroom and stage setups. When did you …? How did you …? Now, truth be told, I did have a new tube amp A Blues Junior NOS , but it was more about the settings on my stomp boxes all thanks to you that fried his brain.

Anyway, I DO have a question. The chain is currently as follows: I actually have an old Big Muff Pi circa Was going to replace the OS2 with that. Do you think this will work with the Blues Junior? The Blues Jr is fully capable of handling a Big Muff.

You might need to roll down the gain a bit and have the tone around noon or possibly higher. Set it up for a fairly bright clean tone, place it after the Muff and try how they sound together.

See this feature for some Muff tone tips http: I learned to play this part thanks to Bjorn, an I think that even if on this website there was just this tutorial, it would be perfect.

When I tried for the first time, some days ago, a different delay for the waving part I feel something similar to a heart attack: The sound is great. When using the BIG MUFF, do I see it right that it is very challenging to dampen the strings which swing from alone without picking them and make noise?

A Big Muff has a much more aggressive character compared to a RAT and when you combine the Muff or any high gain pedal with a second gain pedal for boost you need to be very careful not to create too much gain. Please see this feature for some Big Muff tone tips and let me know if you need more help.

If you have an electric stratocaster, You can also buy a Blackstar HT Dual pedal so you have the sound of the solo in 1 way. How could I have missed that whole section!! Without resorting to being able to commission a new Coloursound Powerboost from Macaris what would you recommend as the best like for like replacement ….. I am not a fan of the EMG tones … and my strat is loaded with the full Gilmour Strat pickguard and pups from a great guy in the states who makes the full guard including the proper custom made black thicker pickguard with no white edging.

Anyone interested for the link then let me know. This thread will never die.. Been reading all over the site for ages and I cannot find any reference to the pick up selection David is using for the CN solos … does anyone know this and maybe also a little section on pick up selections for various classic solos. By pick up selection I do not mean which type of pickup but rather which or which combination of the bridge, middle or neck pick ups does David favour for his classic solos. Thanks again for this great site ….

Check out pickup settings for Wall here. Comf Numb was recorded with the bridge pickup throughout and the mini switch was engaged bridge and neck for the first solo. Wel…I went into the loft and found the cassette. The interview was transmitted on Radio 1 on 28th July People may be interested to hear them? The Etratat reference in my previous post was wrong — that was part of a different story.

He goes on to explain that he presented it to Roger for the next Pink Floyd project. Roger wrote the verse parts and requested the structure be changed slightly in parts to fit with the words he went on to write for it. As part of the interview, the original demo David made at the end of his solo album recording is played. It consists of him strumming the chords and singing the chorus melody la, la, la, la …. I think he says during the interview that the session the solo album and Comfortably Numb demo was in Etratat in France.

The Ciwil War has lots of gain, fat lower end and slightly more mids. Updating my last comment: I know that there are a lot of CN Videos on youtube, so i choosed this one link below in order to you know what i am talking about. The part of the main or 2nd solo what i refers is exactly between 7 minutes 14 seconds and 7. I hope you light my way.

You can clearly see him stomp the pedal board. It makes sense since the tones for this particular part needs a lot of sustain. He seems to be switching it off again at about 7. But Just a detail: You said the guitars were recorded sometime early autumn In fact, all guitars were recorded at Super Bear Studios, between april and July A friend of mine worked there at this time, and remember Dave recording it.

In the main CN solo at least from to now there is a part that david plays always when the solo and the song of course is going to finish. This part almost tells the band that the song is going to finish and i can notice pulse, gdansk, etc etc that he use another effect to this part only.

Do you have some information of it? Thank you very much for your help. Another thing it the orchestral sounds of the keyboards and a hammond very low in the mix of rick wright!

Keep in mind though that they have lots of stuff on backingtracks when they play the song live. All the orchestra stuff is from tape.

This can be achieved by using a midi software and program the strings and brazz instruments. I think the trick though is to keep it simple and focus on the beat and timing.

Listen to how the drums and bass shift from one pattern to another and the dramatic difference between the verse, which is very stripped and dark, and the chorus, which is lush and airy.

Thank you for your help. Thanks for your answer. Your advice with the EQ of the Tube Driver improved the situation a bit. For sure it depends very much on the prestidigitation. My amp settings are as you recommend:. Too much gain, feedback, having the strings too low or the pickups too high causing magnetic interference etc.

The amp settings looks OK. What kind of speakers do you use? Try setting it at unity level with the amp, which should be around 2: If needed, roll off the gain slightly. Roll it back off again if the treble gets too spiky.

It just adds more gain and noise. I can not stop thinking about my bad sound. If I press down two strings at the same time and pluck one of it, the sound is terrible, the compressor does not fix the problem completely. Hallo Bjorn, my question is if you use a compressor for the Comfortably Numb solo.

Without a compressor my sound is so dirty and unpleasant. It seems that the compressor presses the whole dirt back to where it belongs.

What matters are the settings and which pedals you combine. Keep in mind that the RAT has a much more saturated tone than a Big Muff so when you combine it with a Tube Driver you need to be very careful with the amount of gain you apply on both. Also, the compressor will act like a gain pedal so when you combine all three, you really have three gain pedals, which will cause more noise and possibly harsh harmonics.

If needed add the Tube Driver but keep it clean. It should act almost like an EQ adding to a fuller tone and not more gain. Let me know what your amp and pedal settings are and I can try to be a bit more specific. B string fret and bend the G-string from 14th to 16th and do the same pattern up the neck.

Can you break down the tone by verse, chorus, bridge solo, end solo? You are amazing by the way!!!!! See a complete breakdown of all the Wall songs here. It would seem that effects are my biggest downfall when it comes to playing the guitar. Any help here would be awesome, feel free to email me with any advice you might have.

Great article as always! How do you get to sound so awesome using a tubescreamer? As you say, the TS can make the Muff sound quite dark and muddy but low output bright sounding pickups, a nice clean tone with lots of headroom and a vintage style Muff without too much gain and mid range does the job.

You also need to set the TS up for a clean boost with very little gain and the tone around The San Dimas seems to have been something he experimented with in the mid 80s. Julian i f someone can send it to me my e-mail is: One of my favorites to play live, and the audience loves it.

I thought Simon Phillips drumming was outstanding, and Davids solo was the best ever in your first clip. Hey Bjorn, what image editing software do you use? Let me know if you need more help. I created a page on my website strictly about the CN outro solo that you may want to check out.

I ripped some channels from the 5. On a comfortably numb solo u mix together BK tube driver and overdrive????????? You combine both a distortion and an overdrive, placed after the distortion. I saw your great CN jam video on youtube. Could you please tell me what scale you use to improvise? I wanna also transcribe vocals part for guitar, i think the work will be much easier if i get the scale all action is going in: I read your website for a while and I have to thanks you for your awesome work.

Please could you make it clearer? I apologize for my poor english. Thank you by advance! Some say that the rhythms on the verse and main guitar solo were played on a standard tuning while the chours bit was played with a so called Nashville tuning. If you listen to the track however, it sounds very much like all guitars were played with the same Nashville tuning.

In a second solo of Comf. I m a big fan of David Gilmour and pink floyd and i m really impressed by your efforts. Now the thing i wanna ask is that are the rat and the big muff and the green russian similar of different. The RAT has a more modern, creamy tone. Check out this article for more. When can we expect article about Shine on you crazy diamond?

Thank you and good article! Loud as hell, the clean channel will stay clean at insanely high volumes, and loves pedals….. Large Beaver muff sounds great too. My camera mic records the Pink Flesh a little cleaner. There are many different version out there. Bjorn, Have you tried the stereo electric mistress? If so would that be as good as the deluxe version? However, the intro on Sorrow was recorded on a football stadium in Los Angeles. Beside the famous little switch, I read somewhere that the entire wiring was made from scratch, to avoid hummings.

Do you know where to find it? Have you ever tried software like Guitar Rig or Amplitube? I agree with the idea, for gilmourish. You have my vote, now and ever ;D. I have yet to find a complete unit. Bjorn, Is it true that you can get a leslie rotating sound out of a flanger? Flangers, as chorus, tend to get a detuned tone when you turn up the rate or speed.

Especially Boss and some of the more common flangers. However, the Electric Mistress does not change character when your increase the settings and can therefore be used as great alternative to a rotary sim.

The effects that I have in my chain are as follows. These are all hooked up to a Furman. The RAT and the Muff are two quite entirely different pedals and I recommend finding settings that suits the rest of your setup, including your amp and pickups.

I normally have the gain and volume at about 2: As you always say, the secret of Gilmour tone, is volume. In this song in particular, even in early versions, you can hear how loud the solo is, by cheking the other instruments volumes. Its just one of those songs, that you just turn up, close your eyes, play and forget every thing.

When you were in the Royal Albert Hall, how loud did he play it, because, in the dvd there are some serius volume drops in the lead sound, too loud? I did, and the change was drastical. I think the DVD version is from the 3rd night tho… I was at the first and second. All I do remember is that it was a bit brighter and had more attack but probably because I was standing right in front of the amps.

They seem to have added a lot of mid range on most of his guitar parts while they were mixing the DVD. I also remember that his guitar was surprisingly noisy when he used high gain effects.. The sound quality is like night and day compared to the Boss. Very clear, accurate copy of the original sound.

There are also three types of modulation. Maybe a mix between a Leslie and chorus? Anyway, it has gotten my CN sound very close to the studio recorded outro solo to my ears. I have a quick question. I was wondering if I should I get it? With that difference can I still get a good gilmour tone out of it?

I would really appreciate it if I could get your opinion. A treble booster is designed to boost certain frequencies and make a tube amp distort, that is, — if the amp already breaks when you crank it. The Colorsound Power Boost however is an overdrive pedal with a wide tonal range from clean boost to near fuzz. It will distort any amp. Do Engle amplefiers sound identical or even close to Hiwatt amps or would I be better with a Marshall.

The closest to a Hiwatt would be either Sound City or Reeves. Can anyone tell me what are the tonal differnces of Alder and Basswood and help will be welcomed. Whean you release the pedal the delay returns to the normal settings. I hope to be helpful…. David used a Heil on Pigs and Keep Talking. Thanks for the suggestion tho. Hey Bjorn do you think david gilmour ever visited this site? Maybe one day he will come on by and comment. That would be cool!!! Lemme see if I can find you a link….

When you do your Shine On! Mike says that the hand wired reissue is spot on to his vintage phase 90 and he knows his stuff! With the mods it seems like an ideal pedal for WYWH era stuff. Also we must thank MXR for finally doing a reissue right. If these companies would just make the reissues authentic I know they would sell well.

Thanks for the tips regarding the TC nova delay. Yes i did read the manual and use te presets like described, but when you tapped for example twice on the tap tempo by accident you have a problem. The DD20 is easier to use but the TC sounds a lot better, the Memory Man sounds good to and is also a great stereosounded pedal but has no presets. Great discussions about the best guitarsolo of all time. David gilmour describes his fellings in his guitar playing like Johnny Cash Described his feelings in his songs…..

Johnny Cash was a great artist and David Gilmour is a great artist. You mention that david increses the delay time in his pedal before the wavign part… i have an EHX 1 Echoe, i like it, its pretty solid..

You could go with those rubber covers and there are some external devices you can attach to one of the knobs but I think the most efficient way is to have two delay units set differently. Most multi effect processors also have a built in expression pedal witch you can assign to the the delay level and the Boss DD also have inputs for expression pedals.

Are you using a spring to hold your tremolo arm? You can either pop it it or screw it tight safely. If you do have a stock bridge I suggest using a spring from a ball penn or some teflon tape. It beefs the sound up a bit. I use it for some Animals solos, and for the third solo in Shine One. My Fender Twins built in reverb does is not kind to the Muffs or drivers. I use two longer delays to get that big sound I hear on the studio version. Great site I look in alot and love all the tips and info you give.

Can you advise on some good settings for the comfortably numb tone using a strat with standard single coils and a boss Gt8 into a PC for recording. I know tube amps and seperate pedals would be better but alas this is what I am using and its only for a bit of fun. I think you should try to keep it simple with just a clean amp sim Marshall, Fender or similar , a distortion I think the GT-8 has a Muff sim but I have no idea how it sounds and maybe some EQ to shape the sound a bit.

Add chorus and delay of preference. Check out this article for some general tips on how to set up the GT processor. Check out this article too for some general tips on how to arrange a setup and how to set your amp, which applies to amp sims too. I have a TC Nova Delay too. Well worth buying in my opinion. Having said that, I definitely agree with Ruud regarding the presets.

I have had to reprogram them several times after accidentally initiating the tap tempo. I wish there was a preset lock function because changing the presets with my hands is a PITA. But my way around this is to keep a Ibanez DE-7 in the chain, as a second delay setting if there is one in a song. Bjorn do you know if the electro harmonix small clone chorus has a larger volume drop then the electric mistress? But, after all these years, I have now the sound of my dreams. Forget about the Electric Mistress.

Please send us a clip: Ruud, I highly recommend a stereo setup. I used one about ten years ago when I played with my old band, mostly with a stereo chorus. I had two amps to my left and right so I was actually hearing myself in stereo too.

I think hearing myself the way the audience would hear me I hope actually made me a better player. I loved hearing that stereo chorus when I played. Wish I still had that setup. The stereo Mistress would be great. I was thinking of getting one to replace my DD I guess your setup and amp have everything to do with the muff sound you get from a Pink Flesh. I get a better live CF tone with my Green Russian.

Also, my Pink Flesh is very quiet. I have heard several complaints about the noise. Maybe my setup keeps it quite, or I have a unique PF? Some are very quiet while others are quite noisy. Having severe thunderstorms sucks because I dont know if my amp or effects will fry so I cant play using your amp so I cant hear that beautiful gilmour tone I am getting. But on the bright side it is sort of like a suprise to me when I can play with my amp and effects. Your information at the head of the article is not quite correct.

There were two versions of the song recorded: In the end, the hard version was edited onto the end of the orchestral version, just before the solo begins where the fuzz guitar starts. U never know my son was just like that at that age.

His teachers would say hes soo good an smart. Now hes 8yrs old an his behaviors worse still throws fits, his teachers are constantly complaining about him, he sees the school therapist twice a week an jas been put on contracts to track how he does each day. I am a babysitter to this family.

It is obvious their 2 year old son has autism but they seem to simultaneously be in denial while also being completely overwhelmed by him.

When he does not get his way, he throws himself down on the ground and whines or screams so they almost always let him have his way. Would love any advice.

Should the two be treated differently? If so, how does one know the difference between the two? Sorry for all the questions My son was recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and I want to do the right thing here! These disorders are usually first diagnosed in early childhood and range from a severe form, called autistic disorder, through pervasive development disorder not otherwise specified PDD-NOS , to a much milder form, Asperger syndrome now called "high functioning autism".

They also include two rare disorders, Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. Some ASD kids are more likely to have tantrums than other kids. Tantrums are normal behavior for most kids and there is no reason why kids with ASD should refrain from this stage of development. Tantrums are one of the most common problems in young kids with ASD. They may appear to go into a state of rage, panic, anxiety or fear for no reason at all.

This might involve screaming, crying, resisting contact with others, or pushing others away. Similar episodes of panic, anxiety, rage or even aggression might be seen all through childhood, adolescence and even adulthood. Ignoring the tantrum behavior and helping a young child learn how to handle and express anger and frustration are usually effective ways to deal with the behavior.

This is very important in ASD, as it is doubtful that any behavior which may cause difficulties for families is intended maliciously or menacing. There is almost always some other, unidentified, trigger that brings on challenging behavior. It is important to intervene as early as possible so that behaviors are not constant and so that other means of expression and communication are open to kids with ASD.

As with such behavior in all kids there may be any number of causes. There might be underlying reasons such as feeling upset, anxious or angry and immediate triggers such as being told to do something. Kids with ASD often rely on ritual and structure. Structure is a method that helps define the world in terms of set rules and explanations in turn helps the person function most effectively. Most kids with ASD find their own methods of imposing structure and maintaining consistency.

They need this structure because the world is confusing. Other people are complex and almost impossible to understand. The information they receive through their senses might be overwhelming and hard to bring together into a strong whole, and there is likely to be an additional learning disability that makes it hard to apply cognitive skills to all these areas at once. When some form of structure or routine is disrupted the world becomes confusing and overwhelming again.

It might be like losing a comforting toy when feeling alone or homesick. This disruption of structure might be obvious having a collection of objects disturbed, being made to go a different way to school, getting up at an unusual hour or it might be hidden subtle changes in the environment which the youngster is used to for example. Some of these triggers might be out of the control of the individual or his or her family members. Some might be avoidable. Others might be necessary events, which can be slowly introduced so as to limit overt reactions.

For people with profound difficulties in understanding others and in communicating with them it is hardly surprising for frustration, anger and anxiety to build up. If your youngster continues to have frequent tantrums after age 3, you may need to use time-outs.

A time-out removes the youngster from the situation, allows him or her time to calm down, and teaches the child that having a tantrum is not acceptable behavior.

Time-out works best for kids who understand why it is being used. Most kids gradually learn healthy ways to handle the strong emotions that can lead to tantrums.

They also usually improve their ability to communicate, become increasingly independent, and recognize the benefits of having these skills.

Kids who continue to have tantrums after the age of 4 usually need outside help learning to deal with anger. Tantrums that continue or start during the school years may be a sign of other issues, including problems with learning or getting along with other kids. These difficulties can be improved slowly through education and other interventions, but particular differences must be respected.

In this case the cause for the behavior must first be identified before teaching and developing other means of communicating. This type of behavior may continue for years in kids with ASD. They usually do not have any distinguishing features or characteristics that would make them appear different from any other youngster. People who witness a tantrum tend to make judgments on tantrum behaviors, often without anything to base their judgments on other than their own personal experiences.

An ASD tantrum is different in many ways from the average type of temper tantrum. A regular temper tantrum usually starts at the mall, a grocery store, or other public place. A youngster sees an object such as candy, or a toy, and makes a request. The parent refuses the request. The onset of the tantrum begins with this initial refusal to grant the wish.

Adults have all types of reactions to a temper tantrum. It is very embarrassing to have a youngster kicking and screaming on the floor. If it is really out of hand, the parent will remove the youngster from the store and go home. First of all, when an ASD outburst occurs, many times the triggering event is not obvious.

The youngster will just start kicking and screaming for no apparent reason. We have no earthly idea what might have caused the onset of this behavior! Rocking, comforting, scolding, spanking, and other measures we usually take do not help the situation. If anything, the outburst just escalates and the behaviors become even more extreme. We, as adults, are left feeling helpless and frustrated.

Third, no two ASD tantrums ever look quite alike. Kids with ASD can throw crying tantrums, where they just cry and cry for hours and they cannot be comforted. They might throw screaming tantrums, where they screech at the top of their lungs at such a high pitch that you are sure it can break glass. Too often, when they start giggling, the event is no laughing matter. Why does a youngster with ASD have these tantrum behaviors?

The youngster or youth has deficits in developing and using verbal or non-verbal communication systems for receptive or expressive language. Some kids with ASD can and do have language, but that does not mean that they are very good at communicating. Some people with ASD actually talk a great deal, but there is a lack of communication because they often fail to understand the purpose of language.

Other people with ASD do not have the ability to speak, but they learn to communicate through other means. Kids may be somewhere in between, they may echo back what you say to them - this is one way that kids with ASD actually develop speech skills.

However, just because a youngster can echo your words does not mean that the youngster understands what those words mean. When a baby is born, its first method of communicating to the parent is by crying. A youngster who is not developing language often will continue to use crying, or even temper tantrums, to indicate wants and needs. It is also a way to communicate choices and preferences. The youngster demonstrates abnormal responses to environmental stimuli. A youngster with ASD may be hyposensitive senses may be dulled or hypersensitive superman hearing or anywhere in between.

One or all senses may be affected. Grandin states that two things she hated as a youngster were washing her hair and dressing to go to church, because she has overly sensitive skin.

Other sensory related stimuli that might result in tantrum-like behaviors can include reactions to certain sounds, tastes or smells, bright lights or textures. Think of all the sounds, smells, lights and sensory experiences you have when you walk into a department store.

Now imagine what it must be like for a person who is extra sensitive to all of these things! Tantrum-like behaviors in those places just might be a reaction to sensory overload.

Another reason kids with ASD might have tantrum-like behaviors is because they fail to understand social situations. This is certainly one of the criteria for ASD. The youngster has deficits in social interaction, including social cues, emotional expression, personal relationships, and reciprocal interactions. Sharing and taking turns are VERY difficult for my son to understand.

He also has difficulty in sitting and participating in a large group, but he is getting much better at that. One other reason that a youngster might have a tantrum-like behavior is because his or her routine has been upset or changed in some way, usually without advance notice. The youngster demonstrates repetitive ritualistic behavioral patterns including insistence on following routines and a persistent preoccupation and attachments to objects.

People who have ASD have a very difficult time making sense of their environment. They cannot always rely on their sense of touch, taste, smell, vision, or hearing to give them accurate information. This is one of the reasons why they prefer to have everything exactly the way it was yesterday. Reality to an autistic person is a confusing interacting mass of events, people, places, sounds and sights.

There seem to be no clear boundaries, order or meaning to anything. A large part of my life is spent just trying to work out the pattern behind everything. Set routines, times, particular routes and rituals all help to get order into an unbearably chaotic life. The renewal area should be a quiet area away from any extra sensory stimuli.

A spot at the end of a hallway is good. My son has a little tent in his room that he made from a folding card table with a blanket over it. He just crawls in there when things get to be too much for him to handle. In time-out, the youngster is expected to sit in that spot for a set number of minutes. If a youngster is kicking and screaming, you are not going to be able to make them sit in time-out.

It helps to think of an autistic tantrum more as an epileptic seizure. Just like a seizure, the tantrum has to run its course. It will help the youngster to calm down, if you are able to keep yourself calm. If you become angry or excited, this will make the tantrum worse. There might be any number of things at play here, just as I have described. What does the youngster need to learn? Just what do you want the youngster to do when he hears that fire truck coming down the road?

The second step is to analyze the purpose of the inappropriate behavior. This is not as easy as it sounds, because kids with ASD view the world completely different from the rest of us. According to the Technical Assistance Manual on ASD for Kentucky Schools, we should be thinking about what happens before the behavior occurs, what is the exact behavior of the student, and what happens just after the behavior?

So a fire truck comes roaring down the road past the playground, sirens blaring, strobe lights flashing. This happens just before the behavior occurs. The youngster grabs his ears and falls to the ground, kicking and screaming. This is the exact behavior of the student. This happens every time just after the behavior occurs. What are some possible reasons this youngster throws a tantrum-like fit every time the fire truck comes down the road?

Sensitive hearing, to get away from the noise. The third step is to teach the appropriate replacement behavior. How about a more appropriate way to ask to go indoors?

Instead of writhing on the ground in pain, when he first hears the siren he could go to the aid and give her tug on the sleeve, or indicate by pointing that he wants to go inside for a few minutes. Then after the fire truck is gone, he can resume the usual activities. Meltdowns-- One of the most misunderstood autistic behaviors is the meltdown. Thus, the current system is based on a few guiding principles, rather than an extensive list of specific rules. While the handbook still describes how to cite sources, it is organized according to the process of documentation, rather than by the sources themselves.

This gives writers a flexible method that is near-universally applicable. Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field.

When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:. Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elements , and information about the source is kept to the basics.

End this element with a period. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks. Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to "containers," which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.

Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books , or watched a television series on Netflix. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used. Accessed 27 May In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc.

If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation. In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc. A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc. Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.

Current Conditions and Future Directions. The International Online-Only Journal, vol. Accessed 20 May

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